DIGITAL MIXER X32 COMPACT
Compact 40-Input, 25-Bus Digital Mixing Console with 16 Programmable MIDAS Preamps, 17 Motorized Faders, Channel LCD's, 32-Channel Audio Interface and iPad/iPhone* Remote Control
Compact 40-Input, 25-Bus Digital Mixing Console with 16 Programmable MIDAS Preamps, 17 Motorized Faders, Channel LCD's, 32-Channel Audio Interface and iPad/iPhone* Remote Control
The BEHRINGER X32 has changed the game by completely rethinking what is possible from a digital mixer – and tens of thousands of new users are enjoying the results. A fluid workflow coupled with a fully interactive user interface ensures immediate familiarity and instills confidence. Advanced engineering and meticulous design deliver stellar sonic performance at an extremely affordable price – changing the game entirely.
Three companies shared a common vision – to engineer and build the very best- sounding, technically-advanced audio products for discerning professionals. The X32 Digital Mixer family is the result of the engineering, manufacturing and application expertise of legendary console manufacturer MIDAS, the iconic signal processing genius of KLARK TEKNIK and BEHRINGER’s unique ability to deliver a superior value proposition.
The synergy between these three great companies runs deep in the X32. From the pristine, MIDAS-designed mic preamps to KLARK TEKNIK’s rock-solid, ultra-low latency SuperMAC networking technology and BEHRINGER’s completely re-engineered processing algorithms, X32 raises the bar on what a digital mixer can be. A singular passion for delivering advanced technology, unrivalled usability and true road-worthiness has enabled us to engineer a digital console that is the ideal vehicle for your creative expression.
But we’re just getting started!
With the introduction of the new 2.0 firmware, we have not only dramatically improved the workflow, but also added all-new capabilities including “Acoustic Integration” for total connectivity and control of your speaker and In-Ear Monitor (IEM) systems.
Then we completely re-imagined the more than 50 onboard FX “Plug-Ins” and added classic processor examples based on “True Physical Modelling”. We’ve also made the X32 even more flexible, with swappable expansion cards for connecting to other multi-channel audio networking via USB, ADAT, MADI and Dante protocols, in addition to the onboard ULTRANET and AES50 connectivity.
Above all, the X32 is designed to put the power of digital in your hands – without compromise.
X32 is your mind-to-sound interface… the intersection of creativity and production. Whether you’re accustomed to digital mixers or not, the X32’s intuitive user interface offers a fluid mixing experience that instantly feels like home.
And then there is the X32’s latest version 2.0 firmware. We’ve added new scene management features and EQ functions, including a 100-band Real Time Analyzer, flexible library import/export capability and faster FX editing.
We also included 16 new FX “Plug-Ins” which are based on True Physical Modeling of famous classic audio hardware. This process means that we essentially “rebuilt” classic analog gear in the digital domain.
And then we added the most amazing digital networking that allows you to connect to the new TURBOSOUND iQ speakers via simple CAT5 connection. We call it “Acoustic Integration”.
This high-performance iQ Series also includes authentic acoustic modeling of some of the world’s most famous speakers - all remote controllable from your X32.
This is the total solution you have been waiting for.
X32 serves the user a full complement of 25 long-throw, 100 mm motorized servo faders for primary mix control. Working in concert with the LCD Scribble Strips and TFT Display, the faders serve multiple functions while always keeping you informed.
Separate fader sections for inputs and groups/buses allow for convenient assignments from inputs to groups/buses.
With the ability to store up to 100 scenes, X32’s motorized faders jump to life the moment a scene is recalled.
X32’s automated control surface is designed to present you with the control you need, when you need it.
A total of 29 programmable LCD Scribble Strips offer channel/bus identification that mirrors what is being controlled.
Use them to enter input/output tags, plus add icons you recognize at-a-glance. Then assign colors to create visual groups for immediate, on- the-fly recognition of similar inputs.
Simple, elegant and effective – plus you’ll never need masking tape again.
The X32 Channel Strip puts the most important channel processing parameters into one section so that no matter which channel you are working on, the controls are always the same.
This highly-efficient layout stems from BEHRINGER’s decades of console design and input from our users. Optimized control illumination ensures a clear indication of levels or status from any viewing angle.
Illuminated rotary encoders and switches give you control of preamp settings, frequency shelving, dual dynamics sections, as well as multi-mode fully parametric EQ, bus sends, main, mono and stereo panning.
X32’s 7" day-viewable color TFT (Thin-Film Transistor) display shows the setting parameters you need when you need them.
Selected for its high-contrast performance and outdoor visibility, TFT is ideal for concert and open air festival venues. Flanked by high-precision, context-sensitive tactile encoders, the screen comes to life and immediately reports in high definition all adjustments applied to a wide range of parameters.
Intelligent design puts control of vital functions such as Effects, Metering, Routing and much more 1 or 2 button presses away.
X32 brings the convenience of digital mixing to your Aux and output bus mixes too, thanks to its integrated Sends on Fader feature. This incredible function allows you to build powerful, dedicated sub-mixes for monitor, secondary zone feeds, and much more—all without affecting the front of house mix or levels.
The X32 allows you to send your choice of signals to any Aux or output bus and then dial in the perfect mix via the channel faders.
The console remembers where you set the faders and instantly recalls them when you select a bus for quick adjustments.
DCA (Digitally Controlled Amplifier) groups allow control over several signals at once without actually mixing them into a subgroup bus. X32’s 8 DCA groups let you control multiple signals via a single fader, such as the entire drum mix, the horn section, or the backup vocalists, etc.
DCA control affects the FOH mix, while allowing the individual buses to remain unchanged. The result is a customizable workflow that provides maximum flexibility, but still allows individual buses and subgroups to serve the purpose they were intended for, such as zone sends, broadcast feeds, etc.
Across the X32 you’ll find 11 strategically placed View buttons associated with various functions. These buttons enable immediate access to information about that specific function.
For instance, if you press the View button in the Equalizer section, information for that channel’s EQ is instantly shown on the main display, providing in-depth editing of all related parameters.
This direct access to visual fine-tuning gives the engineer a level of control previously available only on consoles costing exponentially more.
While some digital consoles offer a few user-definable controls, X32’s Assign section sets a new standard by providing a total of 36 fully customizable controls on three separate layers.
As with channels and buses, individual Scribble Strips are provided for immediate identification. Buttons can be defined to toggle parameters on/off, adjust timing of effects by tapping, or jump to specific screen views.
Rotary encoders with LED collars can be assigned to specific channel parameters, or to additional parameters in the Dynamics section relevant to the current channel selection.
Legendary 40-year old British company TURBOSOUND, famous for producing some of the world’s best speaker systems, have teamed up with BEHRINGER to seamlessly integrate mixer and speaker systems. We call it “Acoustic Integration”.
The X32’s ULTRANET bus allows streaming up to 16-channels of pristine digital audio to an array of TURBOSOUND iQ speakers - all on a single CAT5 cable, along with control data to set sound presets remotely.
Furthermore, the iQ Series features “True Physical Modeling” of some of the most popular speakers which can be easily remote controlled via the X32, allowing the sound engineer to apply different speaker models in real time from the comfort of the mixing desk.
“Acoustic Integration” is the next live sound revolution.
The X32 now includes a high-resolution 100-band Real Time Analyzer (RTA), with full Bar and Spectrograph views. This high-resolution RTA displays the audio energy distribution in 100 frequency bands over time – capturing a sonogram window of a full 10 seconds.
Switch between the Large RTA view, displaying any available signal in full screen resolution, or the Combined view with the RTA view shown above each of the channel and bus EQ curves.
See the results of your filtering choices in the audio spectrum directly. Additionally, the RTA can be displayed on top of the 31-band graphic EQs in the FX rack.
Monitoring and controlling frequencies has never been easier!
We’ve added 16 new FX “Plug-Ins” to the X32, giving you access to a total of 50+ effects that would otherwise cost tens of thousands of dollars in hardware.
This new generation of high-end FX “Plug-Ins” is based on True Physical Modeling of classic audio hardware. We essentially “rebuilt” classic analog gear in the digital domain and included models of legendary processors such as Urei’s 1176*, Teletronix LA-2A* and Fairchild 670* compressors as well as the legendary Pultec* EQP- 1a and EQ5 equalizers etc. We also added a cutting-edge 5-band multiband compressor.
A new Gain Split mode separates channel gain (trim) from the head amp gain, allowing both the FOH and/or the monitor engineer to adjust local trim digitally – and independently of the preamp gain.
Additionally, the new HA Gain Remote option allows console gains to be remotely controlled by an external console, such as when using the X32 RACK as a stage box.
The X32’s routing becomes even more flexible with this recent firmware upgrade. Output signals and XLR outputs are now treated separately, allowing signals from AES50 sources or expansion cards to be routed directly to the X32’s analog outputs.
For example, now you can use the outputs from an X32 RACK for directly routing back PA or monitoring signals from a main or FOH console. New output tap points can be set as pre- or post-mute for greater usability with your P16 personal monitoring mixers. This is very useful in situations where you don’t want mute groups to interrupt your signal flow.
Introducing the Cue List, an innovative way to automate the loading of scenes and new “Snippets” at different points during a show. Each of the 500 Cue entries can load any of the 100 Scenes or Snippets separately or at the same time. This gives you an amazing total of 500 Cues x 100 Scenes x 100 Snippets!
For example, store your favorite EQ settings for drums on channels 1-8 as a Snippet, recallable in an instant as its own preset, completely independent of the console’s overall scene. It’s like taking a snapshot of a parameter on an input, return, FX slot, bus, Matrix, Main or DCA group – and saving it for quick access whenever you need it.
The award-winning X32 Digital Mixer that changed the industry – is expanding its family, as it continues its evolution. We’ve now added Touring Packages (TP) for the X32, X32 COMPACT and X32 PRODUCER. These road-ready packages include mixers preloaded in heavy-duty, touring-grade road cases, custom-designed to protect its precious cargo. The durable housing features marine-grade plywood swathed in rubberized plastic laminate to protect the mixer from the elements and rigors of travel. The exterior is reinforced with impact-resistant aluminum extrusions, and all latches are recessed to respect your touring crew’s hands and clothes during transport. The interior swaddles the mixer in high-density, protective foam.
Whether you’re on the road, or want to take advantage of the form-factor best suited for your installation – there’s a Touring Pack ready to make your life easier.
X32’s input topology – mic preamps, programmable gain controls and A/D stages were designed by a dedicated engineering team at MIDAS, the company famous for their award-winning mic preamplifier designs.
Conceived as a single, cohesive system, and built around premium A/D converters, this proprietary preamp design captures every nuance of your input signal – ensuring superb sonic performance.
Gain setting is fully programmable and covers a total range of 72 dB, with a precision resolution of 0.5 dB per step.
Accommodating a maximum input signal level of +23 dBu, X32 turns analog VRs and pad switches into ancient history.
Backing the analog input section are audiophile-quality Cirrus Logic multi-channel A/D converters, which boast a 114 dB dynamic range, ensuring impressively-low distortion and low- noise performance.
The MIDAS designed preamplifier ensures signal integrity of the highest degree.
X32 includes an array of control and networking capabilities as standard features. Dual-port AES50 digital networking supports up to 96 channels of audio over shielded (STP) CAT5 cable, allowing remote stage boxes and sharing signals among several connected X32s. Onboard ULTRANET provides a 16-channel digital mix direct to P16 Personal Monitor Mixers, without added hardware, cost or latency. Ethernet, USB 2.0, MIDI – all standard features on X32.
Easy as a handshake. Plug the P16-M personal monitor mixer into X32’s ULTRANET port with a shielded (STP) CAT5 cable, and let the performer dial in their ideal 16-channel personal monitor mix. You can daisy-chain additional P16-M units, or use the P16-D ULTRANET distributor to set up a plug and play monitor system that accommodates up to 48 individual P16-M units.
Personal In-Ear Monitor Amplifier
The POWERPLAY P1 Personal In-Ear Monitor (IEM) Amplifier puts control where it’s most useful – right at the artist’s fingertips. Use a P16-M for creating your personal mix to then feed it to your P1 beltpack. Whether on stage or in the studio, the P1 provides performers and recording artists with a dependable and affordable personal monitoring solution.
The S16 digital stage box closes the gap between stage and FOH (Front of House) by placing 16 fully-programmable, remotely controllable high-end mic preamps and 8 analog, balanced XLR returns at the stage end. Connecting over a single shielded (STP) CAT5 cable, up to three S16 stage boxes can be daisy-chained to deliver 48 channels in and 24 out to the stage. Dual AES50 ports on the X32 allow up to 96 input channels to be connected and routed in the same system.
AES50 simultaneously provides high channel counts, extremely low and deterministic latencies, accurate phase-aligned networked clock distribution, error detection, network redundancy, with simple deployment and ease of use to meet the needs of the live performance industry.
This unique combination also benefits both live and studio recording applications, as well as post-production, broadcasting and audio routing infrastructure. SuperMAC is a proprietary implementation of AES50 owned by KLARK TEKNIK. Originally developed by Sony Pro-Audio Labs in Oxford, UK, it forms the basis of the Audio Engineering Society’s AES50 open standard for digital audio networking – High Resolution Multi-channel Audio Interconnection (HRMAI), as published by the Audio Engineering Society, Inc.
Whether you come from an analog mixing background, or are accustomed to using other digital consoles, your first experience with X32 has been engineered to be intuitive, fluid and straightforward.
The brilliance of the X32 is its simplicity and immediate workflow. Tactile controls allow smooth adjustments to critical elements as the mix progresses while the TFT screen keeps you informed every step of the way.
This integration of tactile controls, motorized faders and the array of LCD and TFT displays makes the X32 experience the premier solution for Live Sound, Broadcast, Studio Recording and Post Production applications.
Each X32 comes loaded with all of the connectivity, I/O and functionality you need, right out of the box – but it does not end there.
Onboard USB 2.0 connectivity delivers a full 32 x 32 channels of audio and MIDI to your DAW. Integrated multi-channel digital audio interfaces connect to remote stage boxes and/or the P16 Personal Monitor System.
Native Ethernet control enables remote operation by computer, iPad or iPhone over a wired or wireless network, across the room – or across the planet!
Keeping all this power up-to-date is easy; just navigate to BEHRINGER.com for the latest enhancements, additions and features.
Download new firmware onto a USB flash drive and insert it into the X32; then re-boot and start enjoying an endless array of new functionality and performance.
X32 includes an extensive array of onboard effects, rendering outboard processing racks a thing of the past. The Virtual FX rack features 8 true-stereo, studio-grade effects engines each assignable to any input, group or output mix bus. Choose from high-end FX modules including a range of reverbs, delays, EQs, dynamics and much more.
Each FX algorithm has been completely re-imagined for stunning performance – typically costing several times the price of the X32.
Custom-designed, and physically modeled after some of the most iconic and sought-after processors, all effects run inside the low-latency environment of the X32 mix engine, ensuring flawless performance, flexible routing and the end of cable faults forever!
The immaculate tube signal path in Teletronix’ LA-2A Leveling Amplifier has left its exceptional clarity, its rich and warm compression on countless albums of the past decades.
The ultra-smooth optical attenuator is closely modeled in our LA COMPRESSOR. It provides breezing, natural and effortlessly musical compression. (Inspired by Teletronix LA-2A*)
WhenUrei released the 1176LN Limiting Amplifier in the late 60’s, it broke new ground. Field Effect Transistors employed were just invented and the 1176 was one of the first audio processors to benefit from this new technology.
Our digital re-incarnation, ULTIMO COMPRESSOR, is based on the early Rev. E model and authentically captures the smooth character of the original class-A output stage and its FET’s legendary fast Attack. (Inspired by Urei 1176LN*)
The COMBINATOR is an amazing 5-band compressor that emulates famous broadcasting and mastering compressors.
A highly complex processor, the COMBINATOR utilizes automatic parameter control that produces stunning and “inaudible” results. Makeup-gain for each frequency band will automatically be adjusted by the Spectral Balance Control (SBC) function, to maintain a balanced audio spectrum.
The XTEC EQ1 is undisputedly one of the best passive studio equalizers ever manufactured. Virtually indescribable, recording engineers claim the Pultec EQP-1a to be the “secret sauce” of sound enhancement.
We analyzed this classic to the core and created an exact physical model that reproduces the multi-faceted sound in painstaking detail. Even the transformers and tube output stage have been faithfully modeled! (Inspired by Pultec EQP-1a*)
Our TruEQ STEREO GEQ delivers musical and responsive signal processing—perfect for general room equalization, indispensable for monitoring. X32 provides up to 16 mono graphic EQs, in addition to the multi-band parametric EQs in all channels and buses, to cope with the most demanding stage monitoring situation.
Plus, the X32’s motorized faders can be switched to control the filter bands of the graphic EQ, with the channel LCDs showing the corresponding filter frequencies—and you can even put this on a user defined hot-key for immediate access. (Modeled after KLARK TEKNIK DN360)
The 3-TAP DELAY in the X32 records the input signal and then echoes it back after a user-definable period of time and number of repeats. What makes the stereo and triple delay useful and outstanding is the linked tap-timing and musical choice of echo patterns.
Use the 3-TAP DELAY to fatten up vocals and instruments, or to add an enhanced spatial element to any performance.
A versatile powerhouse of a live console, the X32 also provides robust studio functionality. Record and play back up to 32 tracks, which run on Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows 8 operating systems or Mac computers via USB 2.0 connectivity. X32 supports 44.1 and 48 kHz sample rates at 24-Bit, allowing you to record up to 32 tracks of live audio directly to your computer for mixing down later. Take advantage of X32’s built-in FX engines to augment your DAW’s plug- in collection, or to free up valuable computer resources. X32’s recall capability makes it easy for both project and professional studio engineers to stay organized by storing projects as scenes, either internally or externally on a USB stick.
Thanks to its onboard MIDI ports, the X32 console can function as a high-level, large-format control surface, similar to Mackie Control and HUI, and integrates seamlessly with most popular DAW platforms. X32’s motorized faders can be used to send position information to the onscreen DAW faders, while each bus’ mute and solo buttons control their onscreen counterparts. This powerful control surface relationship, which functions bi-directionally between the X32 and your DAW, allows you to work more quickly and attend to the finer nuances of the overall mix. After all, mixing with your hands puts you in “touch” with your project, providing a level of finesse that can mean the difference between a good recording session—and a work of art! Or, would you rather use a mouse?
The X32’s expansion slot provides flexible and expandable connectivity for many different applications. A wide array of X-Expansion Cards can easily be used in place of the pre-installed X-USB card to release the power of X32 into existing MADI*, Dante* and ADAT networks. Fully compatible with these widely available audio protocols, the X32 delivers a seamless integration in digital live sound, recording and broadcast environments.
Hi-Speed FireWire/USB 2.0 Audio Interface for Professional Recordings
The X-UF Expansion Card ensures a stable and fast solution for professional live and studio recordings. It provides 400 Mbit/second throughput to transfer your high-track count session to popular Software DAWs on Mac and PC via FireWire or USB 2.0. Additionally, the X-UF turns your X32 into a sophisticated control surface, and includes remote HUI* and Mackie Control* emulation.
High-Performance 32-Channel ADAT Expansion Card for X32
The X-ADAT Expansion Card allows you to digitally integrate your X32 with any equipment featuring ADAT I/O. This includes stand-alone recorders, digital audio workstations, and other digital mixers and signal processing gear. The X-ADAT card provides 32-channels of ADAT inputs and outputs on its 8 fiber-optic Toslink* connectors. The card features 24-bit signal transmission and operates at both 44.1 and 48 kHz sample rates, maintaining your signal integrity. The X-ADAT card also has a BNC word-clock in/out capability allowing it to sync with an external clock, or provide the clock signal for other devices. External clock synchronization is possible through the BNC connection, as well as any of the 4 Toslink ports.
High-Performance 32-Channel MADI Expansion Card for X32
The X-MADI Expansion Card brings even more I/O options to the X32 by instantly enabling it for MADI networking. The MADI or AES10 protocol is quickly becoming an industry standard in many broadcast applications. X-MADI provides optical duplex SC-plugs (IEC874-19) to connect with fiber-optic MADI devices, with multimode fiber-optic cable lengths of up to 2 km supported. Dual BNC terminals are also provided for transmission via standard 75-Ohm coaxial cable of up to 100 m length. The BNC and fibre optic connectivity can also be used simultaneously, creating a reliable redundancy network with fiber–optic installations. X-MADI card is the perfect solution for integrating the X32 into current installations using the MADI protocol.
High-Performance 32-Channel Audinate Dante Expansion Card for X32
By installing the X-DANTE card in place of the X-USB card, your X32 will interface with Dante networks using virtually any 100Mbit/s or Gigabit Network infrastructure with DSCP-based QoS – providing dependable multi-channel audio that coexist with other IP-based data traffic on the same network. The X-DANTE card utilizes 24-bit signal transmission with sample-accurate synchronization and low latency, ensuring the highest audio integrity. And a secondary input allows you to set up a seamless, redundant network. Full remote control of the X32 is possible using the integrated Ethernet switch. When the X-DANTE card is connected to a computer, Audinate’s Dante Controller application gives you full control over configuration and signal routing among your Dante-enabled devices.
Simply connect the X32 to a laptop or desktop PC or Mac Computer via LAN, wireless network or Ethernet cable. The X32-Edit app gives you command of the X32 remotely via computer. Move a fader on the PC, it moves on the X32; press a button on the computer, the button toggles on the X32. You’ll find this feature extremely helpful for stage-side monitor control, individual control of multiple installed X32s, as well as multiple remote control stations of the same X32. The X32-Edit app also lets you create scenes on your PC beforehand to minimize the time required for sound checks.
Front of House is wherever you and your iPad are – thanks to the new X32-Mix app for iPad. Just plug in a wireless router via Ethernet cable to the X32, and then wirelessly connect up to 10 iPad devices, which is especially handy for custom monitor mixes. The X32-Mix app lets you control all 32 mic inputs, 8 AUX inputs and 16 buses – plus the FX stereo returns and the Matrix, Main, and DCA levels. Select a fader bank on the iPad, slide the virtual faders and X32’s motorized faders instantly mirror your action. Plus, with the Sends on Faders functionality, your iPad now controls 16 independent monitor mixes. Download the free X32-Mix app from Apple’s App Store.
X32-Q is the perfect tool for setting up your personal monitoring mix with the BEHRINGER X32 Digital Mixing Console. Compatible with iPhone models and iPod touch devices, each artist can run their own X32-Q app to adjust and tweak their personal wedge’s mix. X32-Q includes an assignable MCA (Mix Control Association) feature that makes monitor mixing simple enough to be adjusted during performance. Assign any input or combination of inputs to one of the 4 MCA controls inside X32-Q and instantly get “more me”, “less band”, “more click track”… with a single sweep of your finger.
X32-Q is also available for Android devices (min 2.2), allowing you to set up your personal monitoring mix with the BEHRINGER X32 Digital Mixing Console. Compatible with Android (VERSION?) mobile devices, each artist can run his own X32-Q Android app to adjust and tweak his personal IEM or wedge monitor mix with an interface similar to the iPhone app. The app includes an assignable MCA (Mix Control Association) feature for monitor mixing simple enough to be adjusted during performance. Assign any combination of inputs to one of the 4 MCA controls inside X32-Q Android and instantly get “more me,” “less band,” “more click track…”, with a single sweep of your finger.
Tracktion is one of the world's fastest and easiest Digital Audio Workstations (DAW) for composing, recording, editing, mixing and sharing your music with the world. Featuring a single-screen interface, and pushing the envelope in design elegance, Tracktion brings together outstanding Pro DAW features, such as dynamic automation, unlimited track count, MIDI recording and support for VST and AU plug-ins. This powerful music production software gives you all the tools of an entire professional-grade recording studio. Learning a DAW has never been easier, thanks to their vast and readily available library of resources. As our way of saying "Thank You", when you register your (insert the product name) at behringer.com, we'll reward you with a complimentary download code for the full version of Tracktion 4. Recording and editing couldn’t be easier. To learn more about Tracktion, visit http://www.tracktion.com/support/videos.
V2.0 beta firmware for X32 models including the technical release notes, important advise that this is a BETA version.
We always strive to provide the best possible Customer Experience. Our products are made in our own MUSIC Group factory using state-of-the-art automation, enhanced production workflows and quality assurance labs with the most sophisticated test equipment available in the world.
As a result, we have one of the lowest product failure rates in the industry, and we confidently back it up with a generous 3-Year Warranty program.
*iPad and iPhone are trademarks of Apple Inc. All third-party trademarks, including, but not limited to HUI, Mackie, Lexicon, PCM, EMT, Quantec and QRS are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Their use neither constitutes a claim of the trademark nor affiliation of the trademark owners with MUSIC Group. Product names are mentioned solely as a reference for X32 COMPACT compatibility and effects. **P16 Personal Monitoring System and Digital Snake are not included.